After shooting down a No. 57 Squadron DH 4 bomber on 23 September, he went out on a further patrol and was engaged by six Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5s of the elite 56 Squadron. Voss fought an epic single-handed dogfight against several aces: Capt. James McCudden (57 victories), Lt. Richard Maybery (21), Lt. Geoffrey Hilton Bowman (32), Capt. Reginald Hoidge (28), Lt. Arthur Rhys Davids (23). Keith Muspratt (8) and Lt V.P. Cronyn, with Lt. Harold A. Hamersley (13) and Lt. Robert L. Chidlaw-Roberts (10) of 60 Squadron. The dogfight developed over Poelkapelle. Another German ace, Karl Menckhoff, attempted to assist Voss but was downed by Rhys-Davids, (though surviving). Voss fought the RFC aces for 10 minutes, eluding them and putting bullets into every SE5. Using the triplane's superior rate of climb and its ability to slip turn (using the rudder to turn quickly), Voss continually outflew his opponents. He was able to turn at high speeds and attack those behind him. After flying past McCudden in a head-on confrontation however, Voss's Fokker was hit with bullets on the starboard side by Hoidge. One round pierced his right side and passed through his lungs. Nearing death, Voss did not see Rhys-Davids approach from the 6 O'clock position, directly behind his tail.
Rhys-Davids got below him and poured two drums of Lewis fire into the underside of the triplane, then attacked again with both guns. The Fokker fell away, stalled and crashed into the British line. McCudden recalled: "I saw him go into a fairly steep dive and so I continued to watch, and then saw the triplane hit the ground and disappear into a thousand fragments, for it seemed to me that it literally went into powder."
Voss crashed near Plum Farm north of Frezenberg in Belgium. Only the rudder, cowling, and parts of the undercarriage were salvaged; the new type of aircraft was the subject of a intelligence report by 2nd Lieutenant G. Barfoot-Saunt.
The famous Fokker F.I of Voss during his last battle.
McCudden's S.E.5 plane during the dogfight when Voss was killed.
One of the British pilots he fought that day, then-Captain James McCudden, a recipient of the Victoria Cross and who would become a leading English ace of the war, expressed sincere regret at Voss's death: "His flying was wonderful, his courage magnificent and in my opinion he was the bravest German airman whom it has been my privilege to see fight." Lieutenant Arthur Rhys-Davids, who himself would fall in combat just one month later, had said to McCudden, "If I could only have brought him down alive."
Voss did much damage to B Flight of 56 Squadron ; Muspratt force-landed at No. 1 Squadron's aerodrome with a bullet in his radiator. Mayberry's SE5 was hit in the upper right hand longeron and badly damaged, force landing at St Marie Cappel. Hamersley and Chidlaw-Roberts' SE5s were badly damaged, whereas Hamersley's machine was eventually sent to No.1 Air Depot for repair. Cronyn's airplane was also damaged